Popular features of Academic Language
Students often think that academic language should sound complex and get difficult to write and understand but that’s not always the truth. Instead, academic writing ought to be clear and concise so that you can communicate its contents within the simplest way.
This site functions as a summary associated with the features of academic language while the corresponding language skills which are required to understand and make use of academic language. These guidelines are designed to help you have a clearer understanding of the demands of academic writing and develop skills to enhance your writing that is academic in.
This 3 minute video from Lund University for a quick introduction to academic writing, watch
Formal writing requires considerable effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments that produce the text easy to comprehend. In general this means that conversational English must certanly be avoided and facts and figures should always be presented in a clear manner. Academic texts should really be factual, concise and accurate. Choose words precisely and carefully so your reader can accurately comprehend the concepts inside the text.
It is critical to remember that academic texts are written with an audience that is academic mind as well as your writing style needs to conform to the conventions associated with the field you might be studying.
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In order to achieve the level that is appropriate of, you should read literature inside your field. This will also allow you to learn and employ terms that are subject-specific. Correct usage of terminology and language facilitates your communication and heightens the credibility of the work.
The Academic Phrasebank from the University of Manchester is a resource that is rich of that can be used in academic writing.
In English, contractions are employed in informal settings and so are therefore not suitable for academic texts. Instead of using a contraction you should write the words out within their entirety. Here are a few examples:
Don’t – do not
Wasn’t – was not
Can’t – cannot (realize that it really is written in one word)
It’s – it is (take notice of the difference between “it’s” (contraction of “it is”) therefore the possessive “its” (as in “The dog wagged its tail”)
Acronyms and Abbreviations:
It is essential to use acronyms and abbreviations properly in academic writing so that your text can be clear as you possibly can for the reader. You need to only use abbreviations when the reading is made by it of your text easier. Another rule of thumb is the fact that the abbreviated term should appear at least three times in the paper. It might be better to spell it out if you use a term more rarely. Words that are commonly abbreviated such as for example “professor” (prof.) and “department” (dept.) should really be spelled call at academic texts. Note however that some abbreviations can be used in citations and reference lists.
An acronym is a kind of abbreviation this is certainly formed because of the letter that is first of word in a phrase or organization. UN and WHO are a couple of examples of well-known acronyms. You should always write out the whole name or phrase followed by the acronym in parentheses when you introduce the acronym. Once you have introduced it, you might make use of the acronym into the rest of the text. For example:
The entire world Health Organization (WHO) has concern that is expressed the spread of the virus. The That Has therefore….
Latin abbreviations should not be utilized in the text itself but can be utilized in parentheses or perhaps in notes and illustrations.
In academic writing, the complexity associated with subject material is acknowledged through critical analysis. This is often done through asking questions and examining and evaluating evidence. Through critical analysis we’re able to add a new perspective to a subject instead of just rewriting what has already been written.
Treating your topic along with your material in an manner that is analytical seep through in your language. Section of being analytical in your writing would be to compare and contrast, evaluate and consider both relative sides of a problem. In addition it implies that you explain, give reasons, draw conclusions, make suggestions and recommendations and support this with evidence.
Academic writing is founded on research and not regarding the writer’s opinion that is own a given topic. You are concerned about facts and not influenced by personal feelings or biases when you write objectively. When presenting a quarrel to your reader, attempt to show both sides if you can and give a wide berth to making value judgments.
At the time that is same will probably want to do an analysis or a discussion plus in that manner express an attitude. To be able to convey attitude without the need for for instance “I think”, you may use words such as apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely and unexpectedly. Note that the attitude you will be expressing shouldn’t be according to personal preferences but alternatively on the evidence that you will be presenting.
For more info and samples of subjective and objective language, see this handout from the University of Adelaide.
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In general, academic texts are impersonal in nature. Which means the emphasis that is main be on evidence and arguments and never based on personal opinion and feelings. Making use of personal pronouns such as “I”, “we” and “you” must be avoided whenever you can.
Some types of academic writing enable the utilization of personal pronouns. As an example, in reflective writing the utilization of the personal pronoun is accepted.
You ought to know that the usage personal pronouns may be different between academic fields and therefore some disciplines try not to accept it at all. Remember to check what is recommended, either by asking your instructor or by reading other academic texts within your subject.
Active and passive voice
One method of steering clear of the use of personal pronouns is by using the passive voice.
A variety was used by me of techniques to analyze my material. (Here the “I” is the subject performing the action).
Many different techniques were used to analyze the materials. (This sentence is impersonal while the action is performed upon the niche, “A number of techniques”, by an unnamed agent. The choice of “the” instead of “my” also serves to make the sentence more objective).
Utilization of the passive voice can be somewhat heavy and quite often imprecise. Nowadays, many writers avoid an excessive utilization of the passive voice. A means of writing objectively but still utilize the active voice is to use your material, your text or your quest while the active agent.